AEPA Reading Endorsement K-8 Practice Questions
The following passage pertains to the following questions 1 – 4:
The kindergarten teacher is concerned about three of her students. While they are enthusiastic about writing, they do not always recognize letters, confusing b, d, and p, or e and o. They do, however, know which sounds go with certain letters when they are orally drilled. When they write, they appear to be attempting letter–sound associations.
“Now I’m writing M,” the teacher heard one boy say as he scripted a large N in the upper right corner of his paper. He studied it for a moment and added, “Nope, it needs another leg.” The student then wrote an I beside the N. “There,” he said. “Now you are an M. I can write the word, ‘man,’ because now I have M.” The child then moved to the lower left corner of the paper. “M-A-N,” he said to himself, slowly pronouncing each sound. “I already have that M. Here is where the rest of the word goes.” He turned the paper sideways and wrote N.
The second child sang to herself as she gripped the crayon and scribbled lines here and there on her paper. Some of the lines resembled letters, but few actually were. Others were scribbles. As she “wrote,” she seemed to be making up a story and seemed to believe she was writing the story down.
The third child didn’t vocalize at all while he worked. He gripped the paper and carefully wrote the same letter over and over and over. Sometimes the letter was large, sometimes tiny. He turned the paper in every direction so that sometimes the letter was sideways or upside down. Sometimes he flipped it backward. “What are you writing?” the teacher asked him. “My name,” the child told her. The teacher then realized the letter was, indeed, the first letter of his name. She gently told him he had done a fine job of writing the first letter of his name. Did he want her to help him write the rest of it? “Nope,” he cheerfully told her, “it’s all here.” He pointed at one of the letters and “read” his full name. He pointed at another letter and again seemed to believe it represented all the sounds of his name.
1. The kindergarten teacher isn’t certain if these children are exhibiting signs of a reading disability or other special needs. What should the teacher do?
A: Nothing. These children are simply at an early stage in the reading/writing process
B: Nothing. She doesn’t want to have to tell the parents that their children are sub-par in terms of intelligence. They are perfectly nice children and can contribute to society in other ways. She resolves to give them extra attention in other areas to help them build confidence
C: She should recommend that the parents take the children to be tested for a number of reading disorders, including dyslexia
D: She should arrange a meeting between herself, the school psychologist, and the reading specialist to discuss the matter and resolve it using a three-pronged approach
2. In the above example, the emergent writers are demonstrating their understanding that letters symbolize predictable sounds, that words begin with an initial sound/letter, and that by “writing,” they are empowering themselves by offering a reader access to their thoughts and ideas. The next three stages the emergent writers will pass through in order will most likely be:
A: Scripting the end-sound to a word (KT=cat); leaving space between words; writing from the top left to the top right of the page, and from top to bottom
B: Scripting the end-sound to a word (KT=cat); writing from the top left to the top right of the page, and from top to bottom; separating the words from one another with a space between
C: Leaving space between the initial letters that represent words; writing from the top left to the top right of the page, and from top to bottom; scripting the final sound of each word as well as the initial sound (KT=cat)
D: Drawing a picture beside each of the initial sounds to represent the entire word; scripting the end-sound to a word (KT=cat); scripting the interior sounds that compose the entire word (KAT=cat)
3. The teacher might best encourage the three students in the above example by:
A: Suggesting they write an entire book rather than just a single page. This will build confidence, teach them sequencing, and encourage the young writers to delve deeper into their ideas.
B: Ask the students to read their stories to her. Suggest they visit other children in the class and read to each of them.
C: Contact the local newspaper and invite a reporter to visit her class and write a story about her emergent writers. In this way, they are sure to see themselves as “real writers” and will more fully apply themselves to the task.
D: Invite all the parents to visit the class the following week. This will give all classmates, regardless of where they are on the learning spectrum, time to memorize their stories. The children will be very excited and will begin to see themselves as “real writers.”
4. At what point should the kindergarten teacher in the above example offer the three children picture books and ask them to read to her?
A: When the three children are all able to script initial sounds, end sounds, and interior sounds they are ready to decode words. She should make her request at this point
B: When the three children are all able to script initial sounds, end sounds, and interior sounds they are ready to decode words. She should make her request at this point
C: As each child reaches the stage in which he habitually writes from the top to the bottom of the page, moving left to right, the time has come. Books are intended to be read in this way, and until a child has had the experience of writing in the same manner, he won’t be able to make sense of the words
D: The teacher should encourage all students to “read” picture books from the first day of school. Talking about the pictures from page to page gives young readers the idea that books are arranged sequentially. Pictures also offer narrative coherence and contextual clues. Emergent readers who are encouraged to enjoy books will more readily embrace the act of reading. Holding a book and turning pages gives young readers a familiarity with them
5. Which of the following statements regarding the acquisition of language is false?
A: Young children often have the ability to comprehend written language just as early as they can comprehend or reproduce oral language when given appropriate instruction
B: Young children often have the ability to comprehend written language just as early as they can comprehend or reproduce oral language when given appropriate instruction
C: Most young children are first exposed to written language when an adult reads aloud
D: A child’s ability to speak, read, and write depends on a variety of physiological factors, as well as environmental factors
6. A fifth grader has prepared a report on reptiles, which is something he knows a great deal about. He rereads his report and decides to make a number of changes. He moves a sentence from the top to the last paragraph. He crosses out several words and replaces them with more specific words. He circles key information and draws an arrow to show another place the information could logically be placed. He is engaged in:
C: First editing, then revising
7. Bi, re, and un are:
A: Suffixes, appearing at the beginning of base words to change their meaning
B: Suffixes, appearing at the end of base words to enhance their meaning
C: Prefixes, appearing at the beginning of base words to emphasize their meaning
D: Prefixes, appearing at the beginning of base words to change their meanings
8. Examples of CVC words include:
A: Add, pad, mad
B: Cat, tack, act
C: Elephant, piano, examine
D: Dog, sit, leg
9. A teacher is working with a student who is struggling with reading. The teacher gives him a story with key words missing:
The boy wanted to take the dog for a walk. The boy opened the door. The _____ ran out. The ____ looked for the dog. When he found the dog, he was very _______.
The student is able to fill in the blanks by considering:
A: Syntax. Oftentimes, word order gives enough clues that a reader can predict what happens next.
B: Pretext. By previewing the story, the student can deduce the missing words.
C: Context. By considering the other words in the story, the student can determine the missing words.
D: Sequencing. By putting the ideas in logical order, the student can determine the missing words.
10. The following is/are (an) element(s) of metacognition:
A: A reader’s awareness of herself as a learner
B: A reader’s understanding of a variety of reading strategies and how to apply them to comprehend a text
C: A reader who is conscious about remembering what has been read
D: All of the above
1. A. Nothing. These children are simply at an early stage in the reading/writing process. When emergent readers become aware of the connections between letters and sounds, and between reading and writing, they want to practice the skills they see proficient readers use. While a proficient writer knows that letters are grouped into words and that words are constructed into sentences that move from left to right and from the top of the page to the bottom, an emergent reader/writer knows only that letters magically contain sounds that other people can read. It is necessary for children to pass through early stages in which they scribble-write and pretend they are scripting letters, which leads to a stage in which they actually do write the initial letter of a word all over the page. Next, the emergent reader/writer will write the initial letter of many of the words that belong in the sentence and will write them sequentially. KJM, for example, might mean the cat chased a mouse.
2. A. Scripting the end-sound to a word (KT=cat); leaving space between words; writing from the top left to the top right of the page, and from top to bottom. Each of these steps is progressively more abstract. Scripting the end-sound to a word helps a young writer recognize that words have beginnings and endings. This naturally leads to the willingness to separate words with white space so that they stand as individual entities. Once this step is reached, the child realizes that in English, writing progresses from left to right and from the top of the page to the bottom.
3. B. Ask the students to read their stories to her. Suggest they visit other children in the class and read to each of them. The teacher should encourage these students by “reading” what they have written, even if what she reads is incorrect. She might misread KJM as Kathy jumped rope with Mandy. Most children will not be upset by this, but will correct the teacher’s misreading by reading what the letters really mean.
4. D. The teacher should encourage all students to “read” picture books from the first day of school. Talking about the pictures from page to page gives young readers the idea that books are arranged sequentially. Pictures also offer narrative coherence and contextual clues. Emergent readers who are encouraged to enjoy books will more readily embrace the act of reading. Holding a book and turning pages gives young readers a familiarity with them.
5. A. Most adults can understand the relationship between oral and written language: components of oral language have representational symbols that can be written and decoded. However, most normally-developing children acquire spoken language first and begin to develop reading and writing skills as they approach school-age. Many children are first exposed to the concept of written language when an adult introduces books or other written texts. However, a child’s ability to read and write develops over time and is dependent on the development of physiological processes such as hearing, sight, and fine motor skills for writing. Written language development also typically requires direct instruction. Most children must be taught to read and write and rarely learn these skills simply by observing others.
6. B. Revising. Revision (literally, re+vision) is the act of “seeing again.” When revising, writers examine what they have written in order to improve the meaning of the work. Fine-tuning word choices, moving information to another location, and adding or deleting words are all acts of revision.
7. D. Prefixes, appearing at the beginning of base words to change their meanings. Suffixes appear at the end of words. Prefixes are attached to the beginning of words to change their meanings. Un+happy, bi+monthly, and re+examine are prefixes that, by definition, change the meanings of the words to which they are attached.
8. D. Dog, sit, leg. CVC words are composed of a consonant, a vowel, and a consonant. To learn to read them, students must be familiar with the letters used and their sounds. A teacher can present a word like sit to students who also know the consonants b/f/h/p and ask them to create a word family of other CVC words. The students will be able to read bit, fit, hit, and pit because they are similar to the word sit they have just learned.
9. C. Context. By considering the other words in the story, the student can determine the missing words. The student is depending on the information supplied by the rest of the story. This information puts the story into context.
10. D. All of the above. Metacognition means a reader’s awareness of her own reading processes as she improves reading comprehension. Other elements of metacognition include awareness of areas in the text where the reader fails to comprehend and an understanding of how the text is structured.